Overdraft (OD) Against Fixed Deposit (FD): Eligibility, Benefits, Interest Rates
Most of us have faced liquidity issues at some point in our lives. From job losses and pay cuts to medical emergencies, different situations can cause the need for urgent funds. In such instances, you can use your fixed deposits as collateral to get an overdraft facility. This scheme is helpful as you do not have to break your FD prematurely and get money fast.
In this article, you’ll get all the details of the Overdraft (OD) against Fixed Deposits (FD) facility that many banks offer. You’ll know its meaning, eligibility, features, how to apply, interest rates and many more.
What is Overdraft against FD?
Overdraft against fixed deposit is a facility where an FD account holder can avail of an overdraft of up to 90% of the value of the FD. The interest rates for OD against FDs are generally 1-2% more than the interest rates on the FD. You can cover up your expenses with an overdraft facility while still earning on your FD. This makes overdraft against FD one of the lowest interest-rate loan options compared to others.
Features of Overdraft against FD
Let’s look at the features of OD against FD:
- Payback: The tenure of paying back the overdraft amount is the same as the fixed deposit’s term. For example, if your fixed deposit is for two years, your loan payback period will be two years as well. However, you should keep in mind that the payback duration might be shorter than, but not greater than the tenure of the FD.
- Status of FD: The FD amount continues to earn interest as usual. There are no penalties.
- Processing Fee: Unlike other loans, there is generally no processing fees involved in the case of OD against an FD.
- Credit Score: When you apply for any kind of loan, the lenders have a look at your credit score before granting the loan. However, you can avail an overdraft against your Fixed Deposit even if your credit score is low as this is secured against FDs.
- Lower interest rates: Interest rates are the most crucial factor to look out for in any debt instrument. A higher interest rate means you end up paying much more than you borrowed.
Here, personal loans could have interest rates as high as 16% in case of bank lender and 30% in case of NBFCs, depending on lender. But overdraft against FDs will only have an interest rate of 1 or 2% more than the FD interest rate. That means that if the FD interest rate is 7%, the loan interest rate would be 8% or 9%. Since the FD interest rate gets canceled out, you pay only 1 or 2%. This makes overdraft against FD one of the lowest interest-rate loan options.
- Minimal or no paperwork – Overdraft against FD is provided with your FD as collateral. Moreover, having FD in a bank means you already have a relationship with that bank, making the loan process quicker. Hence, overdraft against FD often needs very little paperwork. If your bank allows taking overdrafts against FD online, the process will be even simpler.
- Easier prepayment norms – Prepayment is another hassle when it comes to regular loans. Even if you have the amount to repay the loan, some banks won’t allow the same, and you may have to pay interest even if you prepay. But overdraft against FD gives you complete flexibility in this regard. You can prepay the loan anytime you want without any extra charges.
Also Read: Experience financial growth with unmatched Bajaj Finance FD Rates
Eligibility of OD against FD
You can avail of an OD against FD only if you hold a fixed deposit with a bank or financial institution. This FD account can be held individually or jointly with someone. The below categories of depositors are eligible for an OD against a fixed deposit:
- Any Indian resident or NRI aged 18 and above.
- Hindu Undivided Families (HUF).
- Educational Institutions.
However, an overdraft is not allowed against a 5-year tax-saver FD or an FD held on behalf of a minor.
How to Apply for an Overdraft against Fixed Deposits?
You can apply for an OD against FD both online and offline:
- Log into your net banking account using your credentials.
- Go to the tab on ‘Fixed Deposits’.
- Select ‘Overdraft Facility’.
- Enter details about the amount required, the tenure of the OD etc.
- On submitting, the bank will review your request and approve it within a couple of days/hours/instantly.
- Upon approval, your account will be credited with the requested amount.
- Visit a bank branch where your FD is being held.
- Fill out an application form.
- Share the FD Receipt
- After submitting, it might take a couple of days for the bank to approve the request.
- On approval, the amount will be credited to your account.
How to Close Overdraft Against FD?
Many banks do not have any provision for closing the OD online. You will have to visit the branch where your account is registered and request the closure of the overdraft. You can pay off the overdraft by writing a cheque or transferring the funds online. Only after the balance is paid can you request closure of the OD.
If your bank allows you to close the OD online, the first step is to sign in to your net banking account, select ‘Fixed Deposit’ and then select ‘Close Overdraft’. If there is any pending balance, you must pay it off to close the overdraft.
Use the fixed deposit overdraft facility wisely to meet your short-term needs
An overdraft facility against FD, if used wisely, can be the best option to meet your short-term financial needs. Let us compare the same with other debt options to understand this better.
One alternative is a personal loan, which often comes with a much higher interest rate. Furthermore, the process of availing of the loan may be lengthy. Above all, you must have a good credit score and history to get a personal loan. Even though most banks have an online application process for personal loans, disbursal may still take up to one week.
Another option you have is a credit card. But you will have to repay the whole amount at once to avoid hefty interest charges. If you cannot afford to pay or can only pay the minimum, interest charges above 40% per annum may accrue on the due amount. Hence, credit card debt is not a beneficial option unless you have the means to pay it back within a month. This applies even to credit cards taken against FDs.
Compared to this, an overdraft against FD is a better option. To begin with, you only have to pay significantly lower interest rates. You will have time till the end of the maturity period of the FD to repay the payment. You can prepay without any additional charges as well. But it would help if you had an FD open with a bank that allows overdraft facility to avail the same. Furthermore, the amount of money you can take as an overdraft will depend on the FD amount you have as well.
An overdraft against a fixed deposit allows you the flexibility of using your FD corpus for short-term needs at minimal costs. It ensures that you do not lose the return on the whole FD amount. You can choose the duration and the amount you want to utilise temporarily. Moreover, the OD against FD interest rate is very low compared to unsecured overdraft plans.
So, if you are thinking of breaking your FD due to a temporary cash requirement, then opt for an overdraft instead of a premature withdrawal. Also, ensure to pay off the overdraft amount as soon as possible to get the maximum benefit out of your FD.
How is OD interest calculated?
An OD interest rate is obtained by dividing the annual rate by 365 or 366 in case of a leap year. The resulting rate is charged per day of holding the overdrawn funds.
What is an FD lien?
An FD lien is an automatic claim of the bank over your fixed deposit till you have not repaid the overdraft or the loan against it. When you take an OD against an FD, an FD lien is created against your FD. If you try to close your FD before repaying the loan, the amount borrowed plus the interest charges will automatically be deducted from the final FD balance.
Can you avail of an overdraft against a tax-saving fixed deposit?
No. You cannot avail of an overdraft against a tax-saving fixed deposit.
Can minors avail of an overdraft against a fixed deposit?
No. You can only avail an OD against an FD if you are 18 years or above. Even FDs held on behalf of minors are not eligible for OD facilities.
What is the Overdraft credit limit for fixed deposits?
You can withdraw up to 90-95% of the FD value as an overdraft. However, the amount varies from bank to bank. Suppose you have an FD of Rs. 1 lakh, then you can use up to Rs 95000 in OD.
If I want to pre-close my FD, what will happen to my OD?
In general, if you pre-close your FD, your overdraft (OD) facility against that FD will also be cancelled, and you’ll have to pay the balance owed.
Can senior citizens apply for an overdraft against FD?
Yes, senior citizens are eligible to apply for overdraft facilities against their FDs, which have lower interest rates than standard loans.
What is the difference between OD against FD and loan against FD?
Both are credits against your FD, but while an OD enables you to take money as needed up to a set limit and a loan gives you a large sum of money all at once, both must be paid back with interest.